Easy To Use Patents Search & Patent Lawyer Directory

At Patents you can conduct a Patent Search, File a Patent Application, find a Patent Attorney, or search available technology through our Patent Exchange. Patents are available using simple keyword or date criteria. If you are looking to hire a patent attorney, you've come to the right place. Protect your idea and hire a patent lawyer.


Search All Patents:



  This Patent May Be For Sale or Lease. Contact Us

  Is This Your Patent? Claim This Patent Now.



Register or Login To Download This Patent As A PDF




United States Patent 7,050,624
Dialameh ,   et al. May 23, 2006

System and method for feature location and tracking in multiple dimensions including depth

Abstract

The present invention is directed to a method and related system for determining a feature location in multiple dimensions including depth. The method includes providing left and right camera images of the feature and locating the feature in the left camera image and in the right camera image using bunch graph matching. The feature location is determined in multiple dimensions including depth based on the feature locations in the left camera image and the right camera image.


Inventors: Dialameh; Orang (Santa Monica, CA), Neven; Hartmut (Santa Monica, CA)
Assignee: Nevengineering, Inc. (Santa Monica, CA)
Appl. No.: 09/915,204
Filed: July 24, 2001


Related U.S. Patent Documents

Application NumberFiling DatePatent NumberIssue Date
09206195Oct., 20016301370
60220309Jul., 2000

Current U.S. Class: 382/154 ; 348/E13.014; 348/E13.016; 348/E13.027; 348/E13.045; 382/103
Current International Class: G06K 9/00 (20060101)
Field of Search: 382/103,115,118,154,181,190,209,276,240,281 345/419 348/169

References Cited

U.S. Patent Documents
4725824 February 1988 Yoshioka
4805224 February 1989 Koezuka et al.
4827413 May 1989 Baldwin et al.
5159647 October 1992 Burt
5168529 December 1992 Peregrim et al.
5187574 February 1993 Kosemura et al.
5220441 June 1993 Gerstenberger
5280530 January 1994 Trew et al.
5333165 July 1994 Sun
5383013 January 1995 Cox
5430809 July 1995 Tomitaka
5432712 July 1995 Chan
5511153 April 1996 Azarbayejani et al.
5533177 July 1996 Wirtz et al.
5550928 August 1996 Lu et al.
5581625 December 1996 Connell
5588033 December 1996 Yeung
5680487 October 1997 Markandey
5699449 December 1997 Javidi
5714997 February 1998 Anderson
5715325 February 1998 Bang et al.
5719954 February 1998 Onda
5736982 April 1998 Suzuki et al.
5764803 June 1998 Jacquin et al.
5774591 June 1998 Black et al.
5802220 September 1998 Black et al.
5809171 September 1998 Neff et al.
5828769 October 1998 Burns
5905568 May 1999 McDowell et al.
5917937 June 1999 Szeliski et al.
5982853 November 1999 Liebermann
5995119 November 1999 Cosatto et al.
6011562 January 2000 Gagne
6044168 March 2000 Tuceryan et al.
6052123 April 2000 Lection et al.
6516099 February 2003 Davison et al.
Foreign Patent Documents
4406020 Jun., 1995 DE
0807902 Nov., 1997 EP
WO99/53443 Oct., 1999 WO

Other References

Eriksson, et al. "Towards 3-dimensional face recognition", IEEE, pp. 401-406, Jun. 1999. cited by examiner .
Foltyniewicz "Automatic Face Recognition via Wavelets and Mathematical Morphology", IEEE, pp. 13-17, 1996. cited by examiner .
Wu, et al "Gabor Wavelets for 3-D Object Recognition", IEEE, pp. 537-542, 1995. cited by examiner .
Wu, et al. "Gabor Wavelet Representation for 3-D Object Recognition", IEEE, pp. 47-64, 1997. cited by examiner .
International Search Report for PCT/US99/07935. cited by other .
Akimoto, T., et al., "Automatic Creation of Facial 3D Models", IEEE Computer Graphics & Apps., pp. 16-22, Sep. 1993. cited by other .
Ayache, N. et al., "Rectification of Images for Binocular and Trinocular Stereovision", Proc. Of 9th Int'l., Conference on Pattern Recognition, 1, pp. 11-16, Italy, 1988. cited by other .
Belhumeur, P., "A Bayesian Approach to Binocular Stereopsis", Int'l. J. Of Computer Vision, 19 (3), pp. 237-260, 1996. cited by other .
Beymer, D. J., "Face Recognition Under Varying Pose", MIT A.I. Lab, Memo No. 1461,pp. 1-13, Dec. 1993. cited by other .
Beymer, D.J., "Face Recognition Under Varying Pose", MIT A.I. Lab. Research Report, 1994, pp. 756-761. cited by other .
Buhmann, J. et al., "Distortion Invariant Object Recognition By Matching Hierarchically Labeled Graphs", In Proceedings IJCNN Int'l Conf. Of Neural Networks, Washington, D.C. Jun. 1989, pp. 155-159. cited by other .
DeCarlo, D., et al., "The integration of Optical Flow and Deformable Models with Applications to Human Face Shape and Motion Estimation", pp. 1-15, In Proc. CVPR '96, pp. 231-238 (published)[TM Sep. 18, 1996]. cited by other .
Devemay, F. et al., "Computing Differential Properties of 3-D Shapes from Steroscopic Images without {3-D} Models", INRIA, RR-2304, pp. 1-28, Sophia, Antipolis, 1994. cited by other .
Dhond, U., "Structure from Stereo: a Review", IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 19(6), pp. 1489-1510, 1989. cited by other .
Fleet, D.J., et al., "Computation of Component Image Velocity from Local Phase Information", Int., J. Of Computer Vision, 5:1, pp. 77-104 (1990). cited by other .
Fleet, D.J., et al. Measurement of Image Velocity, Kluwer Academic Press, Boston, pp. l-203,1992. cited by other .
Hall, E.L., "Computer Image Processing And Recognition", Academic Press 1979, 99. 468-484. cited by other .
Hong, H.,et al., "Online Facial Recognition based on Personalized Gallery", Proceedings of Int'l Conference On Automatic Face And Gesture Recognition, pp. 1-6, Japan Apr. 1997. cited by other .
Kolocsai, P., et al, Statistical Analysis of Gabor-Filter Representation, Proceedings of International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 1997, 4 pp. cited by other .
Kruger, N., "Visual Learning with a priori Constraints", Shaker Verlag, Aachen, Germany, 1998, pp. 1-131. cited by other .
Kruger, N., et al, "Principles of Cortical Processing Applied to and Motivated by Artificial Object Recognition", Institut fur Neuroinformatik, Internal Report 97-17, Oct. 1997, pp. 1-12. cited by other .
Kruger, N., et al, "Autonomous Learning of Object Representations Utilizing Self-Controlled Movements", 1998, Proceedings of NN98, 5 pp. cited by other .
Kruger, N., et al, "Object Recognition with a Sparse and Autonomously Learned Representation Based on Banana Wavelets", Internal Report 96-11, Institut fur Neuroinformatik, Dec. 1996, pp. 1-24. cited by other .
Kruger, N., et al, "Object Recognition with Banana Wavelets", European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks (ESANN97), 1997, 6 pp. cited by other .
Kruger, N., "An Algorithm for the Learning of Weights in Discrimination Functions Using a priori Constraints", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, No. 7, Jul. 1997, pp. 764-768. cited by other .
Lades, M., et al, "Distortion Invarient Object Recognition in the Dynamic Link Architecture", IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 42, No. 3, 1993, 11 pp. cited by other .
Luong, Q. T., et al, "The Fundamental Matrix, Theory, Algorithm, and Stability Analysis", INRIA, 1993, pp. 1-46. cited by other .
Manjunath, B. S., et al, "A Feature Based Approach to Face Recognition", In Proceedings IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 373-378, Mar. 1992. cited by other .
Mauer, T., et al, "Single-View Based Recognition of Faces Rotated in Depth", In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, pp. 248-253, Zurich, CH, Jun. 26, 1995. cited by other .
Mauer, T., et al, "Learning Feature Transformations to Recognize Faces Rotated in Depth", In Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, vol. 1, pp. 353-358, Paris, France, Oct. 9-13, 1995. cited by other .
Mauer, T., et al, "Tracking and Learning Graphs and Pose on Image Sequences of Faces", Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, Oct. 14-16, 1996, pp. 176-181. cited by other .
Maybank, S. J., et al, "A Theory of Self-Calibration of a Moving Camera", International Journal of Computer Vision, 8(2), pp. 123-151, 1992. cited by other .
McKenna, S.J., et al, Tracking Facial Feature Points With Gabor Wavelets and Shape Models, (publication & date unknown), 6 pp. cited by other .
Okada, K., et al, "The Bochum/USC Face Recognition System", 19 pp. (publication & date unknown). cited by other .
Okutomi, M., et al, "A Multiple-Baseline Stereo", IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 353-363, Apr. 1993. cited by other .
Peters, G., et al, "Learning Object Representations by Clustering Banana Wavelet Responses", Tech. Report IR-INI 96-09, Institut fur Neuroinformatik, Ruhr Universitat, Bochum, 1996, 6 pp. cited by other .
Phillips, P. J., et al, "The Face Recognition Technology (FERET) Program", Proceedings of Office of National Drug Control Policy, CTAC International Technology Symposium, Aug. 18-22, 1997, 10 pages. cited by other .
Pighin, F, et al, "Synthesizing Realistic Facial Expressions from Photographs", In SIGGRAPH 98 Conference Proceedings, pp. 75-84, Jul. 1998. cited by other .
Roy, S., et al, "A Maximum Flow Formulation of the N-Camera Stereo Correspondence Problem", IEEE, Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Vision, Bombay, India, Jan. 1998, pp. 1-6. cited by other .
Sara, R. et al "3-D Data Acquision and Interpretation for Virtual Reality and Telepresence", Proceedings IEEE Workshop Computer Vision for Virtual Reality Based Human Communication, Bombay, Jan. 1998, 7 pp. cited by other .
Sara, R. et al "Fish-Scales: Representing Fuzzy Manifolds", Proceedings International Conference Computer Vision, ICCV '98, pp. 811-817, Bombay, Jan. 1998. cited by other .
Sara, R., et al, "On Occluding Contour Artifacts in Stereo Vision", IEEE, Proceedings of International Conference Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Puerto Rico, 1997, 6 pp. cited by other .
Steffens, J., et al, "PersonSpotter--Fast and Robust System for Human Detection, Tracking, and Recognition", Proceedings of International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 6 pp., Japan--Apr. 1998. cited by other .
Theimer, W. M., et al, "Phase-Based Binocular Vergence Control and Depth Reconstruction using Active Vision", CVGIP: Image Understanding, vol. 60, No. 3, Nov. 1994, pp. 343-358. cited by other .
Tomasi, C., et al., "Stereo Without Search", Proceedings of European Conference on Computer Vision, Cambridge, UK, 1996, 14 pp. (7 sheets). cited by other .
Triesch, J., et al, "Robust Classification of Hand Postures Against Complex Backgrounds", Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, Killington, VT, Oct. 1996, 6 pp. cited by other .
Turk, M., et al, "Eigenfaces for Recognition", Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 71-86, 1991. cited by other .
Wiskott, L., et al, "Face Recognition and Gender Determination", Proceedings of International Workshop on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, pp. 92-97, Zurich CH, Jun. 26, 1995. cited by other .
Wiskott, L., et al, "Face Recognition by Elastic Bunch Graph Matching", Internal Report, IR-INI 96-08, Institut fur Neuroinformatik, Ruhr-Universitat, Bochum, pp. 1-21, Apr. 1996. cited by other .
Wiskott, L., "Labeled Graphs and Dynamic Link Matching for Face Recognition and Scene Analysis", Verlag Harr Deutsch, Thun-Frankfurt am Main. Reihe Physik, Dec. 1995, pp. 1-109. cited by other .
Wiskott, L., "Phanton Faces for Face Analysis". Proceedings of 3rd Joint Symposium on Neural Computation, Pasadena, CA, vol. 6, pp. 46-52, Jun. 1996. cited by other .
Wiskott, L., "Phanton Faces for Face Analysis". Internal Report, IR-INI 96-06, Institut fur Neoroinformatik, Ruhr-Universitat, Bochum, Germany, Apr. 1996, 12 pp. cited by other .
Wiskott, L. "Phantom Faces for Face Analysis", Pattern Recognition, vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 837-846, 1997. cited by other .
Wiskott, L., et al, "Face Recognition by Elastic Bunch Graph Matching", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 19(7), pp. 775-779, 1997. cited by other .
Wong, R., et al, "PC-Based Human Face Recognition System", IEEE, pp. 641-644, 1992. cited by other .
Wurtz, R., "Object Recognition Robust Under Translations, Deformations, and Changes in Background", IEEE Transactions on Patern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, No. 7, Jul. 1997, pp. 769-775. cited by other .
Wurtz, R., et al, "Corner Detection in Color Images by Multiscale Combination of End-stopped Cortical Cells", Artificial Neural Networks--ICANN '97, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1327, pp. 901-906, Springer-Verlag, 1997. cited by other .
Yao, Y., et al, "Tracking a Dynamic Set of Feature Points", IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 4, No. 10, Oct., 1995, pp. 1382-1394. cited by other .
Notification of Transmittal of the International Search Report or the Declaration, International Search Report for PCT/US02/23973, mailed Nov. 18, 2002. cited by other .
Valente, Stephanie et al., "A Visual Analysis/Synthesis Feedback Loop for Accurate Face Tracking", Signal Processing Image Comunication, Elsevier Science Publishers, vol. 16, No. 6, Feb. 2001, pp. 585-608. cited by other .
Yang, Tzong Jer, "Face Analysis and Synthesis", Jun. 1, 1999, Retrieved from Internet, https://www.cmlab.csie,ntu.edu.tw/ on Oct. 25, 2002, 2 pg. cited by other .
Yang, Tzong Jer, "VR-Face: An Operator Assisted Real-Time Face Tracking System", Communication and Multimedia Laboratory, Dept. of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, Jun. 1999, pp. 1-6. cited by other.

Primary Examiner: Miriam; Daniel
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Fawcett; Robroy R.

Parent Case Text



CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. .sctn.119(e)(1) and 37 C.F.R. .sctn. 1.78(a)(4) to U.S. provisional application Ser. No. 60/220,309, entitled SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR FEATURE LOCATION AND TRACKING IN MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS INCLUDING DEPTH and filed Jul. 24, 2000; and claims priority under 35 U.S.C. .sctn. 120 and 37 C.F.R. .sctn. 1.78(a)(2) as a continuation-in-part to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/206,195 which is now U.S. Pat. No. 6,301,370 issued on Oct. 9, 2001, entitled FACE RECOGNITION FROM VIDEO IMAGES and filed Dec. 4, 1998. The entire disclosure of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/206,195 which is now U.S. Pat. No. 6,301,370 issued on Oct. 9, 2001 is incorporated herein by reference.
Claims



We claim:

1. A method for determining a feature location, comprising: providing left and right camera images of the feature; locating the feature in the left camera image and in the right camera image using bunch graph matching, wherein the feature is an eye of a person's face; and determining the feature location in multiple dimensions including depth based on the feature locations in the left camera image and the right camera image.

2. A method for determining a feature location, comprising: providing left and right camera images of the feature; locating the feature in the left camera image and in the right camera image using image analysis based on wavelet component values generated from wavelet transformations of the camera images, wherein the feature is an eye of a person's face; and determining the feature location in multiple dimensions including depth based on the feature locations in the left camera image and the right camera image.

3. A method for determining a feature location as defined in claim 2, wherein the wavelet transformations use Gabor wavelets.

4. Apparatus for determining a feature location, comprising: means for providing left and right camera images of the feature; means for locating the feature in the left camera image and in the right camera image using image analysis based on wavelet component values generated from wavelet transformations of the camera images, wherein the feature is an eye of a person's face; and means for determining the feature location in multiple dimensions including depth based on the feature locations in the left camera image and the right camera image.

5. Apparatus for determining a feature location as defined in claim 4, wherein the wavelet transformations use Gabor wavelets.

6. A method for determining a feature location, comprising: providing first and second spaced-apart camera images of the feature; locating the feature in the first camera image using image analysis based on wavelet component values generated from wavelet transformations of the first camera image, wherein the feature is an eye of a person's face; and locating the feature in the second camera image using image analysis based on wavelet component values generated from wavelet transformations of the second camera image; and determining the feature location in multiple dimensions including depth based on the feature location in the first camera image and the feature location in the second camera image.

7. A method for determining a feature location as defined in claim 6, wherein the wavelet transformations use Gabor wavelets.

8. Apparatus for determining a feature location, comprising: means for providing left and right camera images of the feature; means for locating the feature in the left camera image and in the right camera image using bunch graph matching, wherein the feature is an eye of a person's face; and means for determining the feature location in multiple dimensions including depth based on the feature locations in the left camera image and the right camera image.

9. Apparatus for determining a feature location, comprising: means for providing first and second spaced-apart camera images of the feature; means for locating the feature in the first camera image using image analysis based on wavelet component values generated from wavelet transformations of the first camera image, and locating the feature in the second camera image using image analysis based on wavelet component values generated from wavelet transformations of the second camera image, wherein the feature is an eye of a person's face; and means for determining the feature location in multiple dimensions including depth based on the feature location in the first camera image and the feature location in the second camera image.

10. Apparatus for determining a feature location as defined in claim 9, wherein the wavelet transformations use Gabor wavelets.

11. A method for real-time determination of the location of a person's eyes in three-dimensions for auto-stereoscopic imaging, comprising: providing left and right spaced-apart camera images of a person's face, the person's face including a left eye and a right eye; locating the left eye and the right eye in the left camera image using image analysis based on wavelet component values generated from wavelet transformations of the left camera image, and locating the left eye and the right eye in the right camera image using image analysis based on wavelet component values generated from wavelet transformations of the right camera image; and determining the feature locations of the left eye and the right eye in three dimensions based on the left and right eye locations in the left camera image and the left and right eye locations in the right camera image.

12. A method for real-time determination of the location of a person's eyes in three-dimensions for auto-stereoscopic imaging as defined in claim 11, wherein the wavelet transformations use Gabor wavelets.

13. A method for real-time determination of the location of a person's eyes in three-dimensions for auto-stereoscopic imaging as defined in claim 12, wherein the image analysis comprises bunch graph matching.

14. Apparatus for real-time determination of the location of a person's eyes in three-dimensions for auto-stereoscopic imaging, comprising: means for providing left and right spaced-apart camera images of a person's face, the person's face including a left eye and a right eye; means for locating the left eye and the right eye in the left camera image using image analysis based on wavelet component values generated from wavelet transformations of the left camera image, and locating the left eye and the right eye in the right camera image using image analysis based on wavelet component values generated from wavelet transformations of the right camera image; and means for determining the feature locations of the left eye and the right eye in three dimensions based on the left and right eye locations in the left camera image and the left and right eye locations in the right camera image.

15. Apparatus for real-time determination of the location of a person's eyes in three-dimensions for auto-stereoscopic imaging as defined in claim 14, wherein the wavelet transformations use Gabor wavelets.

16. Apparatus for real-time determination of the location of a person's eyes in three-dimensions for auto-stereoscopic imaging as defined in claim 15, wherein the image analysis comprises bunch graph matching.
Description



BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to feature tracking techniques, and more particularly, to an eye tracking technique that determines the location of a person's eyes in three-dimensional space.

Virtual reality systems are able to generate three-dimensional images viewed by a person without special glasses using, for example, auto-stereoscopic imaging. Auto-stereoscopic imaging requires real time determination of a viewer's eyes in depth or in three dimensions.

Accordingly, there exists a need for a system and related tools for location of a person's features in three-dimensional space. The present invention satisfies these needs.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to a method and related system for determining a feature location in multiple dimensions including depth. The method includes providing left and right camera images of the feature and locating the feature in the left camera image and in the right camera image using bunch graph matching. The feature location is determined in multiple dimensions including depth based on the feature locations in the left camera image and the right camera image.

Other features and advantages of the present invention should be apparent from the following description of the preferred embodiments taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which illustrate, by way of example, the principles of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is an elevation view of a face for feature tracking, according to the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a plan view of the face of FIG. 1 with respect to two tracking cameras.

FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of the geometry of the face and tracking cameras of FIG. 2.

FIG. 4A is an image from a left camera of the face of FIG. 1.

FIG. 4B is an image from a right camera of the face of FIG. 1.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The present invention is directed to a method and related system for determining a feature location in multiple dimensions including depth. The method includes providing left and right camera images of the feature and locating the feature in the left camera image and in the right camera image using bunch graph matching. The feature location is determined in multiple dimensions including depth based on the feature locations in the left camera image and the right camera image.

An embodiment of the invention is described using a simple face image 12 is shown in FIG. 1. The left eye E of the face image is marked with a small diamond to indicate the left eye as a feature for tracking. For simplicity, tracking for only one feature is described. However, several features may be tracked by performing the analysis below for each feature.

The location and tracking of the left eye may be accomplished using two cameras, a right camera CR and a left camera CL, as shown in FIG. 2. Two cameras are generally required for acquiring the location in multiple dimensions including depth using a simple geometrical model shown in FIG. 3. The coordinate system may be selected such that the cameras lie along an x-axis and the depth from the cameras is measured along a z-axis. The distance to the left eye E along the z-axis is a depth D and the distance along the x-axis is a length L (measured from the location of the right camera CR). A normal ray from each camera, NR and NL, indicates an image ray associated with an approximate center of the cameras imaging area.

The imaging areas of the left and right cameras are shown in FIGS. 4A and 4B, respectively. Each imaging area is a rectangular array of imaging or picture elements (pixels). Each vertical row of pixels in each image area corresponds to a particular slope M for an image ray originating at an origin (based on a pinhole model) of the respective camera.

The cameras may be calibrated for the image ray slope associated with each verticle row of pixels. A feature in the image frame may be located and tracked using elastic bunch graph matching. As shown in FIG. 4A, the left eye E is imaged in the left image along vertical pixel row PL and, as shown in FIG. 4B, the left eye E is imaged in the right image along vertical pixel row PR. The pixel rows PL and PR are associated with slopes ML and MR, respectively. Accordingly, the location of the left eye E is readily calculated in the x-z plane. Elastic bunch graph matching and more sophisticated geometrical models and calibration techniques are described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/206,195 which is now U.S. Pat. No. 6,301,370 issued on Oct. 9, 2001.

In the elastic graph matching technique, an image is transformed into Gabor space using a wavelet transformations based on Gabor wavelets. The transformed image is represented by complex wavelet component values associated with each pixel of the original image.

Although the foregoing discloses the preferred embodiments of the present invention, it is understood that those skilled in the art may make various changes to the preferred embodiments without departing form the scope of the invention. The invention is defined only by the following claims.

* * * * *

File A Patent Application

  • Protect your idea -- Don't let someone else file first. Learn more.

  • 3 Easy Steps -- Complete Form, application Review, and File. See our process.

  • Attorney Review -- Have your application reviewed by a Patent Attorney. See what's included.